Worms, or helminths is of parasitic worms that cause a person to different diseases of internal organs and causing the development of more serious diseases. Parasitic worms in the intestine, liver, heart, brain, head, muscles and even eyes. For many years the symptoms of worms may not show up, inflicting considerable damage to the body. Today there are around 150 species of helminths. The worms do not appear only in the children, many types of parasites worms, prefer adults, in which there is a high risk of contracting one way or the other helminthiasis.
Human parasitic worms are divided into two types, the first belong to the nematodes and nematodes, the second type includes flat helminth – tape worms and flukes. In addition to this, the parasites in the human body worms are divided into bio-helminth, geo-helminths and of contact of helminth.
Bio-helminths vary of different owners – media to its full maturation in this group relate to:
- pork and cattle taenia;
- nematodes, cestody and flukes.
Geo-worms – organisms, the development of which does not include penetration, to study at the master of the house. Representatives of the group of geo-helminths:
- trichuris trichuris;
Contact helminths call ossiuri, and dwarf tapeworms, the first cause in the development of enterobiasis, according to excite the disease gimenolepidoz.
Causes of infection
The worms in the human body appear for various reasons, it all depends on a particular type of causative agent of the disease of worms. So, the main cause of the appearance of worms is often eat raw meat or meat, is not past enough of the heat treatment. In the meat industry: live bullish tapeworm, pork can be a source of infection pork tapeworm. Eat raw, bad, boiled, salted fish increases the risk of infestations opisthorchiasis and wide lentecom. These types of worms can enter the body through contaminated water, unwashed or washed, invasive water fruits and vegetables.
Geo-helminths in the human body are still in larval form, initially the worms belong in the ground with the feces of infected people and animals, and then transmitted to people in good health. Causes – wash your hands, wash food, dishes, linens, hygiene products.
The first symptoms of the presence of the worms begin to manifest themselves after the infestation is out of a period of incubation. The precise symptomatic framework of the causative agent, the parasite in the body.
Common signs of worms person:
- skin rashes, itchy areas on the skin pokrov, subject to relapse;
- generalized and local swelling;
- cough, attacks of suffocation, fever;
- the increase in regional lymph nodes;
- general malaise, fatigue, weakness;
- pain in the muscles, in the joints the stomach;
- frequent urination, hematuria terminal (the impurities of the blood in the urine);
- the sensation of pain in the stomach and in the intestine, the violation of a chair, swelling;
- lymph nodes, allergic syndrome during the disease;
- the development of serious diseases – myocarditis, meningoencephalitis, pneumonia, hepatitis.
How to identify worms with ascariasis, the signs of the presence of worms in humans:
- skin rashes;
- nausea, in severe cases – vomiting;
- abdominal pain;
- the reduction or complete lack of appetite;
- change in the composition of the blood – as well as the reaction of the organism that manifests itself in the form of allergy, in the blood is observed an increase in the level of eosinophils.
Without providing timely and adequate treatment, complications may occur – occurs a violation of the integrity of the intestinal, developing pathological processes, such as peritonitis and appendicitis. The defeat can also pass through the liver, occurs an intestinal obstruction.
Events the difillobotrioz:
- general weakness;
- violation of the chair – diarrhea alternating with constipation;
- the selection during the defecation of a young healthy tree.;
- abdominal pain;
- the reduction of body weight.
Complications the difillobotrioz — to-heavy degree of anaemia caused by lack of proteins, iron and vitamin B.
The symptoms that are characteristic for enterobiasis:
- strong anal itching and dermatitis anal when skin inflammation as a result of combing;
- abdominal pain;
- the disease among the girls.
When infestations of pests, disease – ascaridiosi is already manifest after two to three days, the disease of parasites begins to occur after 2-3 weeks after infestation, filariasis comes from the incubation stage through 6-18 months.
After a long period of asymptomatic current cysticercosis, echinococcosis rot small cysts, inside of which are parasites. After rupture of cysts in the body are created the favorable conditions for the development of pleuritis, peritonitis, anaphylactic shock, and lesions of the central nervous system.
The adult worms – the symptoms and treatment of the disease is possible only after definition of an accurate diagnosis. The main task of diagnosis – detection of eggs of helminths in the analysis of the cala of the patient. For the detection of eggs of ossiuri, and roundworms also take scrapings of the anus, and the girls over the anal scraping take the analysis of the vaginal area, inguinal folds, navel.
In the process of diagnostic search in patients with certain types of helminthiasis observed hepato-splenomegaly, this condition is typical with an increase in size of the liver and spleen. In the patient's blood increases the concentration of eosinophils up to èozinofilii. If it is determined dysproteinemia, different types of proteins are in imbalance, this also indicates the presence of parasites in the human body.
If in the body the parasite, a large number of worms, the more often you develop any signs of such a state, occur, dyspeptic, nervous, and syndromes of pain. Such events is already half of the gathered evidence, in favour of certain diseases.
As more studies of patients prescribed the examination of the urine, analysis of blood, research of mucus and bile, muscle tissue, perianal, and rectal mucus, the analysis exposes the content of the duodenum. To refine the localization of helminths, pass ULTRASOUND, endoscopic examination, ct scan.
Please note! Only after the results of the diagnosis, the doctor can determine how to treat the worms in any case. Do not engage in self-therapy and follow medical advice.
The treatment of worms, especially in the chronic phase, passing on doctor's prescription and under his control. All the medicines are chosen on the basis of the type of pathogen of a certain disease, it also takes into account the degree of infestation, the presence of concomitant diseases, the risk of health complications of the patient, his state of immunity.
What medications can assign a specialist, depending on the type of helminthiasis:
- tools, in which the composition enters substance mebendazole – the intake of these drugs is recommended when trihozefaleze, and the enterobiosi;
- medicines that contain a special substance – is more effective than medicines and use them for the therapy of all varieties of pests, including, and with the defeat of the subcutaneous tissue, of the tissues of the eye, of the lymphatic system;
- the tools that contain the levamisole – drugs have a broad spectrum of action, use them for the therapy ascariasis, trichuriasis, toxoplasmosis, enterobiasis;
- drugs based on derivatives of piperazine the adipate – drugs are effective in the treatment of ascariasis and enterobiasis, but when ascariasis piperazine adipate does not destroy ascaris, but only to paralyze, this provides them with an easy conclusion from the body of the patient;
- pills medicines containing albendazole the most effective drugs for the treatment of echinococcosis and cysticercosis;
- drugs, in which composition enters praziquantel – effective means, their prescribed for the treatment of cestodosis, schistosomiasis, paragonimoza.
During the exacerbations of the diseases, the parasites, the treatment comprises the application of infusion of saline solution, gemodeza, of a solution of isotonic glucose. Also the patient is assigned to injection, calcium gluconate or chloride of calcium, vitamin B6, ascorbic acid, sodium bicarbonate, dipyrone, dimedrol, antihistamines , which is needed during the development of hyperthermia. With an increase in the blood pressure, it is recommended that an injection kordiamin.
If the background of parasitism of the worms is formed the viral hepatitis, or allergic myocarditis, the patient prescribe Prednisone and medicines potassium. In that case, when it receives the development of heart failure, it is necessary to treat with special medication.
The treatment of worms has a complex character, one of the components of this immune complex treatment necessary to increase the defences of the organism and rapid rehabilitation. When you connect the secondary infection or risk its membership of the doctor prescribes antibacterial drugs for the destruction of inflammatory processes and infectious.
Please note! If at least one member of the family passes garlic treatment, all other relatives who live with him in an apartment, it must pass the preventive the course of treatment against worms. The same rule applies for sick animals.
After the treatment, the patient must follow simple rules of prevention – monitoring of health status, not to forget the personal hygiene, be sure to wash your hands before eating, after a walk, a talk with animals. It is necessary to wash the dishes, hygiene products.
It is mandatory to the proper heat treatment of meat and fish. If the meat, fish and non-heat-treated, the need of salt. Fruits and vegetables before consumption should be washed with clean water.