Intestinal parasitesare worms that live in the human intestine. It can be one parasite or multiple. The higher the content of worms in the body, the greater the deterioration of health. Long-term multiple infiltrations can lead to complete body failure. Some migratory representatives can block the bile ducts and cause obstructive jaundice.
List of intestinal parasites
In domestic practice, it is routinely accepted to classify all worms into tropical and non-tropical animals to some extent.
Tropical parasites exist in countries with suitable climates-Africa and Southeast Asia. These include schistosomes, filarials, wucherias and many others. You can only be infected with tropical worms on the territory of your respective country. I taste local cuisine and use water from unknown sources, ignoring hygiene and sanitation regulations.
It is impossible for healthy people to infect tropical helminths from sick people because certain environmental conditions and intermediate host organisms are required to complete the entire development cycle.
There are currently more than 300 species of parasites, of which about 100 are recorded on the European continent. A large part of them are parasitic in the human intestine.
According to the most common classification of intestinal parasites. Distinguish the following categories:
- Flukes (also called flukes)-have a leaf or oval shape, the main difference is the presence of suckers.
- Tape (also known as cetodes)-can reach a considerable length (up to several meters); in the form of lace or flat ribbon;
- Round (also called nematode)-the corresponding shape is different.
The most relevant intestinal helminthiasis known in humans:
Each worm is characterized by changes in its developmental stage and several hosts.
Symptoms of intestinal parasites
The clinical manifestations of intestinal helminthiasis have many things in common, so it is almost impossible to confirm the diagnosis before laboratory tests. In this regard, it is possible to distinguish between acute and chronic forms of helminthiasis and describe the corresponding clinical symptoms.
It is characterized by obvious general symptoms, which are caused not only by the action of the parasite itself, but also by the reaction of the host organs and systems. One of the most obvious symptoms:
- Secondary temperature;
- Skin rashes of different intensities and types (spots, papules, rarely pustules and bleeding), often combined with skin itching;
- Disperse muscle and joint pain;
- Swelling of skin and subcutaneous fat;
- Abdominal syndrome (diffuse abdominal pain, nausea and repeated vomiting, long-term diarrhea, no pathological impurities).
The severity of the above clinical symptoms is individual. In one person, this may be a slight discomfort, while in another person, it is a sharp deterioration in health, which cannot be ignored.
Occurs without proper treatment. Local (intestinal symptoms) related to mechanical damage to the intestinal wall stand out. The general clinical symptoms are not obvious. Due to chronic damage caused by worms, they found:
- Malnutrition absorption;
- Some worms trigger the formation of neuroblastopathy.
It is almost impossible to cure spontaneously in the chronic stage of helminthiasis.
Characteristics of certain types of helminths
Only a doctor can guess the development of one kind of worm disease. Characteristic clinical signs are only typical for certain types of worms. For example:
|scar worm disease||
Distal bowel disease (hemocolitis);
|Strongyloidiasis||Atrophy of stomach and intestinal mucosa;|
obstructive jaundice due to the formation of echinococcal cysts in the hepatic hilum;
Only after a comprehensive examination can the diagnosis of one or the other worm disease be confirmed.
How do parasites infect and develop in the body
Intestinal parasite infection can occur in two ways:
- Through the skin-the so-called percutaneous path;
- Through unclean hands, unwashed vegetables and fruits, contaminated water and food.
Intestinal parasites, as the name implies, do not leave the human digestive tract. In the future, parasites can develop in two ways: simple and complex.
The development cycle of an adult is very simple. It develops from the worm eggs that enter the human body. The clinical symptoms are caused by damage to one or another part of the gastrointestinal tract.
During a complex development cycle, eggs will form larvae, and parasites will migrate along multiple organ systems, causing a variety of clinical symptoms.
Methods for diagnosing parasitic intestinal diseases
For the diagnosis and treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases, you should consult an infectious disease doctor. Major cities have specialized medical centers and even inpatient departments.The diagnosis of zx helminthiasis begins with a general clinical blood test: the main distinguishing feature is severe eosinophilia-an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood.
Some specific research methods are known:
- Parasitological methods-detection of worm eggs in the patient's feces; for this, collect fresh fecal parts and examine under a microscope; if necessary, use transport media to transport them to the laboratory;
- Serological method-detection of M immunoglobulin (acute phase);
- Instrumental methods (ultrasound, tomography)-used for differential diagnosis to rule out tumor processes.
The results of only one study are not an independent diagnosis. Only a doctor can evaluate the patient's condition and make a preliminary diagnosis.
Any treatment of helminthiasis should be done under the guidance of a doctor. Independent use of anthelmintics (including preventive drugs) is unacceptable because most drugs are highly toxic.
A comprehensive approach is needed, including diet food, medicine and folk remedies.
There are no strict regulations on the nutrition of helminthiasis. It is enough to follow the rules of healthy eating:
- Consume enough low-fat dairy products;
- Include a variety of grains, eggs, lean fish and meat in your diet;
- Reject alcoholic beverages;
- Reduce or eliminate semi-finished products, soda water, foods high in preservatives and flavor enhancers;
- All products should be washed thoroughly (vegetables, fruits, berries), if possible-heat treatment (no bloody steaks allowed) to prevent re-infection.
When prescribing specific drugs, the doctor will individually explain which products should be restricted or excluded altogether.
In the treatment of helminthiasis, a general medicine that can kill multiple worms at the same time is used.
The duration of the treatment course is individually selected. In combination with antiparasitic drugs, hepatoprotective agents and intestinal absorbers can be used.
The use of certain anthelmintics will make it combined with an enema. Enema is a common cleansing enema-it has no special function. Whether she needs it or not, the doctor will decide.
The efficiency is questionable. The most popular are:
- Pumpkin seeds;
- Alcohol tincture for immature (green) walnuts;
- Alcohol tincture of chanterelles;
- is a freshly prepared decoction made from pine cones.
The combination of folk recipes and traditional medicines is completely acceptable.
Prevention of parasitic diseases
There is no specific prevention method. Given its simple and easy infection characteristics, it is difficult to protect yourself from worms. To do this, you need:
- Always wash vegetables and fruits, rinse with boiling water;
- Avoid storing ready-made and semi-finished products in the refrigerator nearby;
- Be sure to wash your hands thoroughly;
- Follow the cooking rules.