Types of parasites in the human body

Parasites in the human body

Parasites in the human body may appear completely unexpected. The reason is usually direct contact with the source of infection, such as direct contact with an infected person or object. There are many kinds of parasites in the human body: Giardia, pinworm, pneumococcus, Trichinella, Schistosoma, etc. From the next article, you will learn more about the organisms that are parasitic in the human body and the most effective ways to fight them. With them

Human parasites

The structure of the human body is quite complicated, and it is vulnerable to various diseases and infections, infections, viruses and parasites. Parasites deposited in the human body are microorganisms that lead to a parasitic lifestyle. They try to survive by feeding on other organisms, microorganisms, cells, etc.

Parasites provide fertile soil for the life and reproduction of the human body, causing very serious, sometimes irreparable damage to human health, destroying the human body from the inside, swallowing it, and sometimes causing death or stopping a single organ. Work, which also deteriorates the quality of a person’s life is frustrating, and ultimately shortens his life. In nature, there are millions of parasites. Among these animals, some parasitize only one representative of the animal world. But in nature, this species can also exist in the bodies of several animals. Which parasites live in the human body? This is a question many people ask.

There are many types of worms that can live in the human body. Some of them are very rare, while others are often settled internally and can lead to a parasitic lifestyle that lasts for decades.

Various parasites

There are several types of parasites: Parasites-Parasites live a superficial lifestyle on the human body. This category includes lice, bugs, and ticks; internal parasites-parasites that affect human internal organs. In turn, they are divided into two categories, the simplest creatures and worms.

Types of parasitic protozoa: lamblia, Toxoplasma gondii, Trichomonas. These types of protozoan parasites are most common in humans.

The classification of parasites related to worms means that they are divided into three major categories: nematodes, flukes, and worms.

Types of parasites in the human body

worm

The

worm is the most famous parasite in the intestine. Diseases caused by pinworms are called enteropathy. Not only people are tortured by it, but also the apes. Children have an increased risk of pinworms. According to various data, preschool children's participation in small bowel disease ranges from 25% to 90%. The worm spreads from one person to another. Infection occurs through shaking hands, clothing, and anything the patient has touched, provided that the hands are not washed after contact and the eggs have entered the mouth (this is especially common during meals).

Flies and cockroaches can carry the eggs of these nematodes by seeding food. Worms live in the small intestine, cecum and colon. They mate in the ileum, and then the female crawls out of the anus through the rectum and lays eggs in the anus. The symptoms of bowel disease are anal itching, body intoxication (allergic reactions, exhaustion, fatigue), anemia, elevated blood eosinophil levels, insomnia, and abdominal pain.

In order to get rid of small intestinal worm disease, use anthelmintic. The dosage and course of treatment are chosen by the doctor. In order to avoid re-infection, it is important to keep your hands clean, wash your hands in any public place, after use in the bathroom, before eating, etc.

Nails should be cut short, bedding and underwear should be thoroughly disinfected, and the apartment should be cleaned daily.

Toksokara

Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of nematodes. The disease caused by toxoplasma gondii is called "toxoplasmosis". This attack on humans can be larvae (eyes and internal organs) and intestinal. The disease spreads widely all over the world. When worm eggs enter the human digestive tract, toxoplasma infection occurs. This is most common when eating food or water contaminated with dog feces. Contact with sick animals is equally dangerous.

The natural carriers of Toxoplasma gondii are cats and dogs, foxes and wolves. Once in the human body, the worm's larvae migrate through blood vessels and can settle in any organ. The symptoms of the disease will depend on this. Toxoplasmosis is most commonly manifested as an allergic reaction (Kunke’s edema, skin rash, bronchial asthma). During the exacerbation of the disease, the body temperature may rise to 38 degrees, but the symptoms of poisoning in the body are mild.

Toxoplasmosis can be suspected by swollen lymph nodes: the visceral form of toxoplasmosis is the most common and occurs from damage to internal organs (intestines, respiratory system, heart valves).

A person may experience abdominal pain, right lower cartilage, indigestion, and nausea. If the respiratory system is damaged, the person has shortness of breath, dry cough, and suffocation; if the toxin deposits on the heart valve, it means that the patient is weak, the fingers are blue, the nasolabial triangle, and the breath is fast; the skin form is characterized by itching, under the skinInflammation of the skin and mucous membranes; in the form of the nervous system, parasites can stimulate inflammation of the meninges and brain tissue itself.

It manifests as headache, nausea and vomiting, seizures and other neurological diseases. To treat toxoplasmosis, anthelmintics and pathogenic and symptomatic treatments are used.

Human A worm

Human A worm is a roundworm that parasitizes the small intestine. The diseases caused by these parasites are called as worms. The owner of the worm and the source of infection is a patient. The worm's eggs enter the soil with his feces, where they grow into larvae. Then, transfer this soil to food or human hands. If the personal hygiene rules are not followed, and the processed fruits, vegetables and berries in the digestive tract are not processed well, it is

.

Children and rural residents are more susceptible to infection. Insect diseases manifest themselves in different stages of their development in different ways. During the migration phase of the larvae through the body, the body temperature rises, a dry cough occurs, gasps in the lungs, and lymph nodes are enlarged. Children are more susceptible to assimilation than adults. Skin allergic reaction is a typical symptom of asparagus disease. During the period of intestinal parasitism, patients will suffer from dyspepsia, stools are replaced by constipation, and abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting often occur. In part of the nervous system, hysterical convulsions, insomnia, mental fatigue and headaches were observed.

hookworm and nekator

Hookworm and nekator are two species of insects, belonging to the family Ancylostomatidae (Ancylostomatidae), which cause a disease called hookworm. These parasites can infect the human body in two ways-feces-mouth (consumption of contaminated water, fruits, vegetables) and transdermal contact with soil (penetration through the skin).

Clinical symptoms of osteoporosis: papular blisters, shortness of breath and cough, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain, sparse stool, anemia and iron deficiency. Treatment comes down to taking anthelmintics and iron preparations to eliminate anemia.

Wide ribbon

The wide variety of tapeworms belong to the worms of the pseudoalgae family. These parasites live in the small intestines of humans and fish-eating mammals. Infection with tapeworms can cause the development of diseases, such as bitrichiasis.

There are 12 kinds of tapeworms that can parasitize the human body, but the widest tapeworm is the most common. Infections can occur from eating raw and unheated shallow salted fish or caviar (which contains worm eggs). Symptoms of parasites in the intestine: nausea, abdominal pain, anemia

In severe cases, intestinal obstruction may occur. In order to get rid of the parasites, anthelmintics were prescribed for the patient. After the treatment process is completed, the worms in the body must be re-examined. If necessary, re-use anthelmintics.

Bull tapeworm

Bovine tapeworm is a tapeworm belonging to the teniid family. In the larval stage, it affects cattle, in the worm stage, it lives in the human body (gut). Tapeworms can cause a disease called teniarinhoz. Usually, patients have a parasite in their body. After eating unheated meat (beef), humans will be infected through diet.

Clinically, the disease manifests as nausea, excessive appetite, abdominal pain, unstable stool and urticaria. In order to remove cattle tapeworms from the body, anthelmintics are required. At the same time, patients should adhere to a scum-free diet, wash enema, and take laxatives. After using insect repellent, the worms die naturally and leave the body. Sometimes its length can reach 12 m.

Pork tapeworm

Pork tapeworm is a parasitic tapeworm that infects mammals. The intermediate carriers can be pigs, dogs, rabbits, camels, but the final owner is always a person. If adult parasites are found in the human body, then they will say that the disease is tendinitis. When the parasite is in the patient's body during the larval stage, the disease is called "cysticercosis. "

Pork tapeworm infection occurs when eating uncooked pork. Sometimes the source of cysticercosis is seeding hands or watering. A patient with tendon degeneration poses an epidemiological risk to himself (larval infection of the brain, skin, eyes, or skeletal muscle) and others.

en worm disease symptoms: abdominal pain, loss of appetite, stool discomfort, headache, often dizziness, fainting (tenosynovia of the brain and eyes is very dangerous). In order to treat taworm disease, the patient was admitted to the hospital. Under the supervision of a doctor, he was prescribed an anthelmintic. Then, 2 hours later, the patient took normal saline to get rid of the worm segments and eggs. Surgery is necessary to treat cysticercosis of the eyes and brain.

Echinococcus

Echinococcus is a tape insect from Cyclophyllidae. Adults live in the intestines of dogs and cats, and are found in jack wolves and wolves. For humans, the larvae of parasites are dangerous and may cause a serious disease-hydatid disease. The larvae can infect the internal organs of the human body, forming echinococcal sacs in them. For echinococcosis, humans act as intermediate hosts.

Infection is carried out through contact (during the process of cutting the carcass, when interacting with sick animals) or eating (when eating contaminated food or water). People engaged in animal husbandry or constant contact with animals are at risk. Symptoms may not appear for many years. When the asymptomatic phase is over, pain, itching of the skin at the introduction site of the larvae, and urticaria may occur. In addition, the function of the organs parasitized by Echinococcus e larvae is impaired. An increase in body temperature and fever was observed during the purulent period of the cyst.

Echinococcus can be completely cured only through surgery. The cyst is peeled, being careful not to damage its membrane. If the bladder is large, pierce it and suck out its contents. Before and after the operation, the patient needs to take antiparasitic drugs. If the cyst is completely removed, the prognosis of recovery is good.

Pneumococcal

Pneumococcus is a worm from the tail est class. The worm develops a life-threatening alveolar disease, which is characterized by the formation of major lesions in the liver, followed by metastasis to other organs. When the parasite's cancer ball enters the mouth, an infection occurs.

This can happen during hunting, during the cutting of wild animal carcasses, during contact with domestic animals, or when eating unprocessed berries and herbs in the forest. The symptoms of alveolar coccidiosis were reduced to pain, gas, and nausea in the lower right cartilage. Frequent itching and allergic reactions. The suppuration of tumors with parasites and their penetration into the abdominal or pleural cavity are not excluded.

Alveolar cocci metastasis can be seen in the brain and lungs. The disease is treated quickly, but antiparasitic drugs should be added.

Giardia

Giardia (alias for Giardia) is a flagella parasite of the class Dimastigotes. Giardia can cause a disease called "giardiasis" and parasitize the small intestines of humans and many other mammals and even birds.

Lamb infections occur through the fecal-oral route: food, water, and household contact methods. As far as the spread of infection is concerned, the most important thing is the use of raw water, contaminated food and the use of public goods inoculated with Lambert's cyst. The main symptoms of giardiasis are nausea, abdominal pain, fecal disorders and excessive gas.

In addition, patients also experience allergic reactions, poisoning and neurosis. The treatment of giardiasis is carried out with the help of antiprotozoal drugs, and enzymes, bile drugs and intestinal absorbers are added to the treatment plan.

Tissue Amoeba

Histological Amoeba is a protozoan parasite that causes a disease called amoebiasis. The disease manifests as the formation of ulcers in the large intestine, which subsequently damages other internal organs. After mature cysts from water or food enter the human gastrointestinal tract, amoeba infection occurs through the fecal-oral route. Possible spread of parasites without washing hands. Flies can spread amoeba

Another way to spread amoebiasis is through sexual (anal intercourse). Symptoms of amebiasis: mucus in stool, abdominal pain, blood in the stool, weight loss, anemia. In addition, parenteral amebiasis is characterized by the formation of abscesses in those organs affected by parasites (lung, brain, liver, etc. ). In order to treat intestinal amebiasis, antiparasitic drugs are prescribed.

The duration of treatment depends on the severity of the course of amebiasis.

Esophageal stomata

The larvae and the mature nematode Gnthostoma spinigerum cause a disease called angular anastomosis. Infections can occur by eating unprocessed fish, frog or poultry meat, and drinking unboiled, unsterilized water. The symptoms of the disease are cough and pain when the larva penetrates below the skin, local inflammation and elevated body temperature.

Severe edema and itching are typical. Usually, symptoms disappear after a week, but they reappear many years later. It harms the eyes and brain, and usually ends in death. Treatment includes taking anthelmintics and surgery. During the operation, the parasites were removed from under the skin.

Trichinella

Trichinella is a round parasite that lives in the muscles (eye movement, chewing, diaphragm muscle) in the larval stage and in the small intestine cavity in the adult stage. The disease caused by Trichinella spiralis is called "Trichinellasis". This is fatal.

Human infections occur through the consumption of raw or poorly processed meat from wild and domestic animals. Symptoms include loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal pain. In the future, muscle pain, swelling of the eyelids, and rashes will also occur. Parasite treatment is carried out with the help of anthelmintics. Antihistamines are prescribed at the same time, and corticosteroids are prescribed as needed.

Schistosoma

Schistosoma is a fluke of the genus fluke. They caused a disease called schistosomiasis. Human infections occur during bathing, washing clothes or watering the soil with schistosome larvae. They can even penetrate into the human body through intact skin and mucous membranes. The symptoms of the acute phase of the disease include elevated body temperature, itching of the skin and papules all over the body.

After the disease becomes chronic, the infected person may develop symptoms such as vaginitis, prostatitis, colitis, ascites, and hydronephrosis. Use anthelmintics to treat the disease. The complications of urogenital schistosomiasis require surgical intervention.

There are many parasites that can harm the human body. If safe cooking techniques are not followed and basic hygiene procedures are not followed, most people will enter the owner's body through the gastrointestinal tract.

Adaptive attributes of parasites

  • Long life expectancy (worms live in the human body for several years, sometimes even as long as the host's parasites);
  • The ability to inhibit or change the immune response of the host organism (the appearance of an immunodeficiency state, which creates conditions for pathogens to penetrate from the outside and "inhibit" internal infections);
  • Many types of worms release anti-enzymes after entering the digestive tract, thereby preventing them from death; the digestive process is disrupted and toxic allergic reactions of various severity occur: urticaria, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis; x/li>
  • Development stages (eggs, larvae, host changes);
  • The ability of eggs to survive in the external environment for several years;
  • Sexual reproduction, in which there is the exchange of genetic information, this is the highest stage of development, leading to an increase in heterogeneous populations, that is, parasites become less vulnerable;
  • Lack of immune prevention methods, because the immune response is weak and unstable;
  • A wide range of worms, many habitats (water, soil, air, plants and animals).

Prevention of internal parasites

Precautionary measures to prevent parasite infestation must be comprehensive. First of all, you must abide by the basic rules of personal hygiene, eat only washed fruits, vegetables, and heat-treated fish and meat, and drink only clean water. Most experts advocate the use of antiparasitic drugs to prevent helminthiasis-a parasitologist will help you choose the necessary drugs and calculate their dosage correctly.

You can supplement this therapy with folk remedies that repel insects-for example, eat more onions, garlic, various spices, and eat pumpkin seeds regularly.